|The King ligging eaten of Wormes.|
The most famous dance of death in England was painted on the walls of the cloister at St. Paul's Cathedral in London.
The author was the famous monk, John Lydgate, who had translated the text from a French original (Owte of the frensshe), which he had seen in Paris (And fro Paris / to Inglond hit sent). The danse that Lydgate had translated was the famous Danse Macabre in Cimetière des Innocents: (The whiche daunce / at seint Innocentis portreied is).
Lydgate was in Paris in 1426 - i.e. the year following the execution af the mural painting in Paris. This was during the 100 Years War when France was under English rule. Lydgate added 6 dancers: 4 women,(1) a juror and a conjuror.
|The Ellesmere manuscript.|
No trace of the painting survives, but by all accounts the pictures had followed the original in Paris. Stow writes:
|Funny enough, The 1618-edition of Stow's book starts with this initial, but in a chapter that has nothing to do with the dance in St. Paul's.|
There was also one great Cloyster on the north side of this
church inuironing a plot of ground, of old time called Pardon
church yard, wherof Thomas More, deane of Pauls, was either
the first builder, or a most especiall benefactor, and was buried
there. About this Cloyster, was artificially and richly painted
the dance of Machabray, or dance of death, commonely called
the dance of Pauls: the like whereof was painted about
S. Innocents cloyster at Paris in France: the meters or poesie
of this dance were translated out of French into English by
Iohn Lidgate, Monke of Bury, the picture of death leading all
estates, at the dispence of Ienken Carpenter, in the raigne of
Henry the sixt.
(John Stow, A survey of London, 1603, reprint from 1903, page 327)
Stow goes on to tell, that the building with the mural was demolished in 1549:
In the yeare 1549. on the tenth of Aprill, the sayd Chapell,
by commaundement of the Duke of Sommerset, was begun to
bee pulled downe, with the whole Cloystrie, the daunce of
Death, the Tombes and Monuments; so that nothing thereof
was left but the bare plot of ground, which is since conuerted
into a Garden, for the pettie Canons.
(John Stow, A survey of London, 1603, reprint from 1903, page 329)
|The beginning of Lydgate's text. Ellesmere (EL 26 A 13).|
Fortunately the Middle English text still survives in 12 different manuscripts, and in 1554 it was printed at the end of Richard Tottel's edition of Lydgate's "Fall of Princes". Since Stow has assured us that the mural looked like the one in Paris, the text in this section has been illustrated with Guyot Marchant's woodcuts from Paris, 1485.
The Ellesmere manuscript uses the letter yogh, which looks like this: ȝ. Hopefully your browser is able to display it. The yogh is half G and half Y. It's used in words like ȝonge (modern English: "young"), ȝoure ("your"), briȝt ("bright") and ȝeuen ("given").
I will attempt to translate parts of the text into modern English.
Words of the translator
Words of the authority
Pope & emperor
Cardinal & king
Patriark & constable
Archbishop & baron
Bishop & squire
Abbot, abbess & bailif
Astronomer & citizen
Canon & merchant
Carthusian & sergent
Monk & usurer
Physician & squire
Man of law & minstrel
Parson & labourer
Friar minor & child
Clerk & hermit
The king lying dead
Many of the manuscripts add an empress, but this is not true for the Ellesmere-manuscript. The following is from the MS Landsdowne 699 (also known as L):
Lat se your hand / my lady dame Empresse
Have no disdeyn / with me for to daunce
Ye may a side / leyn al your richesse
Your fresh attyres / devises of plesaunce
Your soleyn cheeris / your strange countenaunce
Your clothis of gold / most vncouthly wrouht
Hauyng of deth / ful litel remembrance
But now se weel al is come to nouht.
What availeth / gold richesse o[r] perre
Or what availeth / hih blood or lentylnesse
Or what availeth / freshnesse or beaute
Or what is worth / hih porte o[r] straungenesse
Deth seith chek mat / to al sich veyn noblesse
All worldly power / now may me nat availe
Raunsoun kyndrede / frenship nor worthynesse
Syn deth is come / myn hih estat tassaile.