This section about La Danse Macabre focuses on the French text. But my good friend, Mischa von Perger, wrote to me: "You should mention that the Latin prologue of the dance, according to the mss. from Saint-Victor, begins with a reference to a picture: "Haec pictura .". So the copied lines themselves tell us that we are reading verses which should accompany a picture.".
This is an important point: In Guy Marchant's book from 1486 (picture to the left) the angel holds a scroll with a Latin text: »Hec pictura decus. pompam. luxumque relegat : inque choris nostris ducere festa monet«. The same thing is true for the books published by Antoine Vérard and Claude Nourry (pictures further down). The angel tellls us that »This painting banishes pride, vanity and luxury«(1).
These two lines were neither invented by Marchant, Vérard nor Nourry. The same lines introduce many of the old manuscripts (see example to the right), so in this way they are just as much an integral part of La Danse Macabre as the French verses are.
No less than five of the old manuscripts feature these two lines. Besides the two manuscripts from the abbey of Saint Victor, namely Latin 14904 and Fr. 25550, they are also found in BnF Fr. 14989, BnF Fr. 1055 and BnF NAF 10032. And not only that but the two latter (Fr. 1055 and NAF 10032) inform us that the words are spoken by an angel: »Angelus loquitur«. Exactly as the pictures show.
This is not just true for the French manuscripts. Among the English translations of "The Daunce of Machabree" we find the manuscript Cambridge Trinity R 3 21, which also contains these two lines. The Trinity-manuscript is from the reign of Edward IV and since Edward IV died in 1483, the text cannot have been influenced by Marchant's woodcut from 1485.
The angel (without Latin text) also appears in at least two other English manuscripts, namely Lansdowne 699 and Vossius VGG Q 9, where the authority shares the two first verses with the angel, so the second verse is spoken by "Angelus".
This means that from the very beginning there has been angel telling us that »This painting banishes pride, vanity and luxury« This is a strong indication that the text originates from a painting and that it is a transcription of the mural in St. Innocents cemetery.
The text inside the scroll is not a part of the woodcut, but has been printed with movable type. This can be observed from the fact that in the 1486-edition (top, left corner of this page) the second line says, »inque choris nostris ducere festa monet«, whereas the 1490-edition says, »inque choris nostris linquere festa monet«.
The only existing copy of Petit Laurens' version is lacking the first leaf, so we don't know what the authority looked like in this book. But in other publications Laurens used a variant of the authority that we see to the left,(2) and here the scroll is empty.
As the picture to the right shows, other printers have employed the same woodcut while adding a short text.(3) It is anybody's guess whether Petit Laurens had used this woodcut for his Danse Macabre (in all probability he did) and whether he had written »Hec pictura […]« inside the scroll.
The angel soon disappeared from Marchant's books. In Marchant's 1491-edition of the women's danse macabre another woodcut was introduced of an authority without angel. What happened next is less than clear, but all the woodcuts soon ended up in Troyes with one exception: The authority with the angel stayed back in Paris, where we meet him in an edition of Romant de la rose published by Le Noir in 1521. By this time the text had been erased from the angel's scroll.
In Troyes they instead used the "new" authority from 1491, and when this woodblock was used up after a few centuries, they instead employed images of the month of May or a corpse carrying a coffin. None of these images had any angel, and as a result the two lines, »Hec pictura decus […]«, were never printed in Troyes even though they evidently were a part of the original text.
But there are more Latin quotes than these two. Above Marchant's and Nourry's authority are the words: »Discite vos choream cuncti qui cernitis istam:« / »Quantum prosit honor. gloria. diuicie.« / »Tales estis enim matura morte futuri:« / »Qualis in effigie mortua turba vocat.«
These four lines are even better attested that the two lines of the angel. Not only do we find them in the same 5 manuscripts, but also in Ms. Lille 139 and in a Catalan translation from the 15th century (see the external link).
It's a little uncertain whether these quotes were included in the very first printed version from 1485. Most of the first leaf after the title page is missing in the only existing copy (picture to the right). However, there is still a fraction of a corner of the angel's scroll (indicated by the red arrow), so presumably it has said »Hec pictura […]«.
If we return to Marchant's version from 1486 for the third time (picture to the top, left), there are also 4 lines in the right column above the image starting: »Est commune mori mors […]« (Nourry has placed them below the image). However these lines have nothing to do with La Danse Macabre. In the 1486-edition, Guy Marchant came upon the idea of adding sundry Latin quotes to each image, and he did the same for all later versions.
As the fragment to the right shows, Marchand's 1485-edition had no texts above the image (just as Vérard didn't have any either). It is anyone's guess whether Marchand had been placed Latin texts below the image, but he probably didn't, since none of the other woodcuts in the 1485-edition have any Latin texts above nor below.
This tradition with Latin texts — not just »Discite vos choream […]« and »Hec pictura […]«, but also all the others that Marchant had added — was later carried on by the families Le Rouge and Oudot in Troyes and Petit Laurens and Nourry.
Many of these quotes were used by Simon Vostre in the margins of his books of hours. The examples to the left and right quote from the "original" Latin text: »Discite vos choream […]«.
The interested reader is directed to this page where Mischa von Perger has translated the quotes and commented upon them.
At the end of the dance we once again meet the angel and the authority together with a dead king. The angel has produced a new scroll:
Mortales dominus cunctos in luce creauit:
This text is also featured on the old manuscripts; no less than six of them: Latin 14904, BnF fr. 25550, BnF fr. 14989, BnF NAF 10032, Lille 139 and BNF 995. In addition there are the abovementioned Catalan manuscript and the likewise abovementioned English manuscript Cambridge Trinity R 3 21.
Again we can quote two manuscripts for saying that the scroll must be held by an angel, for BnF Fr. 14989 and BnF NAF 10032 have the headline: »Angelus et doctor loquntur«, the angel and the doctor speak.
Nevertheless this text is not a proper part of La Danse Macabre, but is in fact much older. It was written by Saint Bruno of Cologne, also know as Bruno the Carthusian, who lived from ca. 1030 to 1101. The text was also included in the anthology Ars moriendi, "the art of dying [well]", that Guy Marchant had published in 1483.
It's an open question whether Saint Bruno's text was a part of the original mural. But this is what the angel claims, and if you can't trust an angel, then who can you trust?
Belot of Geneva used a woodcut with a empty scroll (picture to the right). In this manner he could employ the same woodcut for both authorities.
Nourry has reused the woodcut of the authority at the beginning. He has changed the text on the scroll, but evidently there was not enough space for Saint Bruno's text, so instead the scroll says, »Oderunt peccare boni virtutis amore« (good men hate to sin out of their love of virtue). A quote by Horace that has very little to do with the danse macabre, but was short enough to fit inside the scroll.
Nourry used the same woodcut with a third text on the scroll in the book La Vie des troys Maries from 1519 (picture to the right). He also used it in Le kalendrier des bergiers from 1508, where the scroll was left blank.
The women's Danse Macabre is more recent than the men's and is known from a handful of manuscripts. None of these feature any Latin quotes.
The text was printed for the first time by Marchant in 1486, where the introducing authority was reused from the men's dance (picture to the left). This means that the angel repeats his banner with »Hec pictura […]« here, where it doesn't belong.
The women's dance was reprinted in 1491 with many new woodcuts. At the same time the woodcut of the authority was replaced by another without angel, so the two lines wirh »Hec pictura […]« disappeared. As mentioned earlier, these two lines are not to be found in future publications by Marchant or the families Le Rouge and Oudot in Troyes.
On the other hand Marchant added a new text above the image, in 1486 as well as 1491:
Lex metuenda premit mortales, omnibus vna
This text is not a part of La Danse Macabre des Femmes. It was authored by another Carthusian, Dionysius Carthusiensis (1402-1471). This text was also included in the Ars moriendi books that Guy Marchant had published since 1483.
A bit of this text was used in the margins by Simon Vostre (to the left). The text was quoted in full in the margins of a book of hours by Godard. Click the image to the right, and then once more to enlarge it.
Guy Marchant modelled the women's dance after the men's Danse Macabre. He added sundry Latin quotes above each woodcut, like he had done for the men, and he added four musicians as a counterpart to the four musicians he had added to the men's dance (using the same woodcut).
Finally he added a dead queen as a counterpart to the dead king in the men's dance.(4) However even a casual glimpse reveals that the dead queen looks suspiciously like the dead king, and indeed the text on the angel's scroll is the same: »Mortales dominus cunctos […]«.
Footnotes: (1) (2) (3) (4)
See the external link.
As can be seen, they added the text: »Que sursum sunt sapite«.
Petit Laurens also used the woodcut in "Rommant de le Rose" from 1497-98. The woodcut appeared at the end, and inside the scroll was the name of the author: "Maistre Jehan de Meun[g]".