The Expulsion
Holbein Proofs, Expulsion

The Expulsion from Paradise

Jakob von Wil's dance of death in Lucerne
Dance of death in Lucerne
Holbein: The Expulsion (August 1524)
Diverse, Expulsion C

A dam and Eve are driven out of Paradise. According to Catholic (and Lutheran) doctrine, Adam and Eve were immortal before the Temptation and Fall. See the page about the Original Sin. Death is waiting outside. It's odd that Adam and Eve are naked, when the Bible clearly says, »Unto Adam also and to his wife did the LORD God make coats of skins, and clothed them« (Genesis 3,21).

Holbein has inspired the dance of death in Lucerne from 1610. Jakob von Wil also starts the dance with an angel with a flaming sword driving Adam and Eve out of Paradise, where they are greeted by Death. Notice the apple in Eve's hand.

The scenes from The Old Testament are not included in the Holbein's dance of death alphabet, but back in 1524 Holbein had designed an alphabet with themes from the book of Genesis cut in metal (picture to the right).

Holbein: Genesis chap. 2 & 3
Holbein: illustrations from The Old Testament
Holbein: Abraham and the angel
Holbein: Abraham and the angel
Holbein also produced a series of illustrations for The Old Testament. When publishing Bibles and Bible picture books, these illustrations were often complemented with the first four pictures from the dance of death: Creation, Temptation and Fall, The Expulsion from Paradise and Life After the Fall. The picture to the left is from a picture book from 1547 with Holbein's illustrations from The Old Testament — spiffed up with sundry Bible quotes and didactic poems.

A little later in the same book there's a picture of the angel of the Lord preventing Abraham from sacrificing Isaac. This angel looks like the angel that chases Adam and Eve out of the Garden of Eden.

Variations: Aldegrever, as he is wont to, makes a free interpretation, and Eberhard Kieser copies Aldegrever.
Birckmann reduces the angel, takes the sword sheath away from the angel, lets Death use a bow for his instrument, designs a deer behind Adam and a goat at the frame of the picture.
Hollar and Deuchar follow Birckmann, but Valvasor doesn't.

Various Artists

Holbein Proofs (1526)
Holbein Proofs 1526: Expulsion
Holbein (1538)
Holbein 1538: Expulsion
Aldegrever (1541)
Aldegrever 1541: The Expulsion
Vogtherr (1544)
Vogtherr 1544: Expulsion
(1552)
 1552: The Expulsion
(1552)
 1552: The Expulsion
Birckmann (1555)
Birckmann 1555: Expulsion
Wagner (1557)
Wagner 1557: Expulsion
Scharffenberg (1576)
Scharffenberg 1576: Expulsion
Maundeville (1580)
Maundeville 1580: Maundeville
Straub (1581)
Straub 1581: Expulsion
Pine oc Død (1587)
Pine oc Død 1587: Expulsion
Chytraeus (1590)
Chytraeus 1590: Expulsion
Glissenti (1596)
Glissenti 1596: Expulsion
Meyer (1650)
Meyer 1650: Expulsion
Hollar (1651)
Hollar 1651: Expulsion
Thomas Neale (1657)
Thomas Neale 1657: Expulsion
Valvasor (1682)
Valvasor 1682: Expulsion
Mechel (1780)
Mechel 1780: Expulsion
Deuchar (1788)
Deuchar 1788: Expulsion
Bewick (1789)
Bewick 1789: Expulsion
Anderson (1810)
Anderson 1810: Expulsion
Bechstein (1831)
Bechstein 1831: Expulsion
Schlotthauer (1832)
Schlotthauer 1832: Expulsion
Douce (1833)
Douce 1833: Expulsion
Curmer (1858)
Curmer 1858: Expulsion

Up to Holbein's great dance of death