s early as in 1544, Heinrich Vogtherr the Elder's (1490-1556) copy of Holbein's dance of death was published in Augsburg. This makes his dance of death the first German Holbein-clone, (unless you count Aldegrever's 8 pictures). Vogtherr's dance of death is a rather close copy of Holbein's work, except that the images are laterally reversed and bigger.
Vogtherr follows the old so-called printer's proofs, which explains the German titles. For the same reason he leaves out the astrologer and (naturally) the pictures that were only added to the dance in the later editions from 1545-1562. On the other hand, he added two new scenes: The adulterer and the crucifixion (picture to the right).
The sequence is the same as in the "proofs" and departs from the various editions of Simulachres & Historiées. First come the scenes from The Old Testament, then ecclesiastics (including the physician), secular men, and women ending with mother and child. In fact the sequence is exactly the same as the so-called proofs in Berlin's Kupferstichkabinett except that the lawyer — rather illogically — comes before the judge.
The sequence is: Erschaffung des Menschen, Einführung ins paradeyß, Austreybung Adams, Fluch des Menschen, Der Pabst, Der Cardinal, Der Bischoff, Der Thumbherr, Der Abt, Der Pfarrer, Der Predicant, Der Münch, Der Artzet, Der Kayser, Der Künig, Der Hertzog, Der Graff, Der Ritter, Der Edelman, Der Rathsherr, Der Fürsprech, Der Richter, Der Reychmann, Der Kawffmann, Der Kramer, Der Schiffmann, Der Eebrecher, Der Ackermann, Der Alltmann, Die Kayserin, Die Künigin, Die Hertzogin, Die Gräffin, Die Edelfraw, Die Abtissin, Die Nunn, Das Allt weib, Das Jung kind, Die Gepain aller Menschen, Das Crucifix, Das Jüngst gericht and Das wappen des Todts.
The books ends with the signature: »Gedruckt inn der Kaiserlichen Reychstatt Augspurg, durch Jobst Denecker, Formschneyder«. The publisher — Jobst Denecker — here points out that he himself used to work as a block-cutter.
Jobst Denecker (1485-1544) was a splendid artist in his own right, who is credited with the invention of multi-colour prints and the chiaroscuro-technique. In his older years he branched out as a publisher. Many commentators want to affix Denecker's name to this book, but it's hard to see what role he's supposed to have played: The motifs were already designed by Holbein, and we know that Vogtherr cut the blocks, because he added his mark:
Vogtherr removed Hans Lützelburger's woodcutter's mark: a conjoined H and L in the lower, left corner of the duchess' bed (picture to the left). Instead Vogtherr replaced Lützelburger's mark with the year 1542 (picture to the right).
Vogtherr then added his own mark. He had used his initials "HV" as a monogram, but when his son — who was also named Heinrich Vogtherr — had become a master in 1541, Vogtherr had added an "E" (der Elter / the Elder). Therefore one can see a laterally reversed HVE in the lower right corner of the advocate. Click here for a super-sized image of Vogtherr's advocate.
The book starts with a discussion between Death and man, and each picture has a dialogue in German between Death and the dying, just as there is in all the "proper" dances of death.
Read the text here: Todtentantz.
n the woodcut of the pope, a devil comes flying with a letter of indulgence. In Holbein's version this letter is adorned with a pseudo-inscription, but in the 1544-edition Vogtherr replaced it with a legible text (picture to the left): "ve tibi corona Superbia mea"; "Woe unto thee the crown of my pride" This sounds like a variation of Isaiah 28:1 "vae coronae superbiae" ("Woe to the crown of pride").
In the next edition, which is from ca. 1548, the letter of indulgence is gone and so are the flying devil and the devil climbing the canopy (picture to the right).
Not only has the image become more pope-friendly, but so has the text. In the 1544 edition, Death calls the pope the Antichrist who wants to be God on earth: »Du Bapst ain warer Antichrist / Willst sein der irrdisch Got«, and the pope acknowledges that his soul is in peril: »Ach Todt du sagst mir gwisslich war / Ich stee yetz meiner seel inn gfar«. In the text from 1548 there is no criticism. The pope must die first because he is the most powerful: »Sihe Babst / der erst du billich bist / Am todtentantz«, but the pope is confident: »Doch förcht ich mich nit vmb ein haar«.
n even more radical change was made to the scene with the adulterer. This person does not appear in Holbein's dance, but Vogtherr had invented a rather unpleasant scene with Death holding the woman fast by her hair while helping the cuckolded husband to pierce the adulterous couple (picture to the left). The picture caused outrage at the time and only appeared in the 1544-edition. In some of the existing copies it has been destroyed.(1)
In the later editions it was replaced by more tranquil scene: The same bed and the same room, but the couple are sitting together in the bed while Death holds up a mirror and hourglass (picture to the right).
In this new scene, the woodcutter has added his mark at the bottom of the bed: A conjoined JD, short for Jobst Denecker(2) (picture to the right).
Read the text here: Todtentantz.
The national library of Austria has a later edition without front page, prologue, epilogue or colophon. There is no information concerning who published the book, or where and when.
There are 40 woodcuts, including the "gentle" version of the adulterer, but without Judgment Day. Instead of dialogues and Latin quotes there are four lines in German below each image.
The headings are different. The knight has become »Ein Hauptman« (i.e. a captain), while the duke has become »Ein Ritter«. The noblewoman is »Ein Burger«.
The book to the left likewise has no information about publisher, place or year of publication: »Der Todten Tanz. Durch alle Stände vnd Geschlecht der Menschen / darinnen sie ihr nichtigkeit vnd Sterbligkeit / als inn einem Spiegel beschauen können / fürgebildet in volgende Figuren«.
The antiquarian states that this exemplar (the book to the left) is fragmentary and contains only seven woodcuts, but that these are the same as in the book from ca. 1550, and that these seven woodcuts have the same headings (which were different in the 1544 and 1548 editions): Erschaffung aller ding, Adam vnd Eua im Paradeyß, Außtreibung auß dem Paradeyß, Adams vnd Eue Nahrung, Ein Schiffman. Ein Wucherer and Ein Kauffman.
David was probably a son of Jobst Denecker. In 1561 he published another version in Augsburg: »Gedruckt in der löblichen Reychstatt Augspurg durch Dauidt Denecker Formschneyder«.
In 1572 he moved to Leipzig, where he published »Todtentantz, Durch alle Stende der Menschen, darinnen jr herkommen vnd Ende, Nichtigkeit vnd Sterbligkeit, als in einem Spiegel zubeschawen, fürgebildet, vnd mit schönen Figuren vnd guten Reimen gezieret, nottwendig, auch lustig allermenniglichen zu lesen, hören vnd wissen«. At the bottom: »Zu Leypzig, durch Dauid de Necker, Formschneider«. However this time it was no longer Vogtherr's woodcuts, but new copies with frames decorated with flowers and putti.
In 1579 David Denecker moved to Vienna, where he published the book to the right: »Todtentantz / Durch alle Stendt der Menschen darinnen jhr herkommen vnd endt nichtigkeit vnd sterbligkeit als in einem spiegel zubeschawen/ fürgebildet vnd mit schönen Figuren vnd guten Reimen gezieret nottwendig […] zu lesen/ hoeren vnd wissen«. The book contains the new woodcuts with the new frames. At the bottom of the page it says: »Getruckt zu Wien in Osterreich : durch Dauid de Necker Formschneider, […] 1579«.
These new woodcuts were reprinted two years later by Leonhart Straub of St. Gallen.
In 1836 Vogtherr's original woodcuts and the text were copied by Carl Helmuth.
Here are the 40 prints arranged in the same sequence as in Imagines Mortis:
Hans Holbein (1526) - so-called proofs
Hans Holbein (1538) - the originals
Heinrich Aldegrever (1541)
→ Heinrich Vogtherr (1544) ←
Vincenzo Valgrisi (1545)
Arnold Birckmann (1555)
Juan de Icíar (1555)
Valentin Wagner (1557)
Jiří Melantrich (1563)
Georg Scharffenberg (1576)
Leonhart Straub (1581)
David Chytraeus (1590)
Peter Paul Rubens (ca. 1590)
Fabio Glissenti (1596)
Eberhard Kieser (1617)
Rudolf and Conrad Meyer (1650)
Wenceslaus Hollar (1651)
De doodt vermaskert (1654)
Thomas Neale (1657)
Johann Weichard von Valvasor (1682)
Erbaulicher Sterb-Spiegel (1704)
Salomon van Rusting (1707)
T. Nieuhoff Piccard (1720)
Christian de Mechel (1780)
David Deuchar (1788)
John Bewick (1789)
Alexander Anderson (1810)
Wenceslaus Hollar (1816)
"Mr. Bewick" (1825)
Ludwig Bechstein (1831)
Joseph Schlotthauer (1832)
Francis Douce (1833)
Carl Helmuth (1836)
Francis Douce (1858, 2. edition)
Henri Léon Curmer (1858)
Tindall Wildridge (1887)
Footnotes: (1) (2)
Massmann also confirms that the scene wan't popular:
»Ein grässlich Bild, nicht Holbeinisch, und - von der Zeit wahrscheinlich getadelt«
(Kunst-Blatt no. 76, 22. September 1831, page 302).
Personally I'm unsure what might have caused the greater offence in those days: The murder or the nudity.
This would mean that Jobst Denecker probably didn't die in 1544.
According to Tilman Falk in "Neue Deutsche Biographie 19" (1999), Denecker died "before October 1548".