Døde=Dands has been translated into Swedish: »Det mänskliga lifwets obeständighet eller Samtal, imellan döden och människor af allehanda stånd. Öfwersatt ifrån Danska Språket«. I.e: "The transience of human life or conversations between Death and people of all ranks of society. Translated from the Danish language".
Judging from the small sample shown here to the left and right, the Swedish text is markedly tamer than the original: There's no reference to the doctor killing his patients and no parallel is made between the two glasses, the doctor's urine flask and Death's hourglass. The two tools of the two killers:
Hr. Doctor! det er Tid, du Kunsten maae opgive,
Og ey methodice fleer Mennesker aflive.
Du paa Urin=Glas seer, som Styrmand paa Compas;
Men glemmer derimod dit Lives Time=Glas.
|Herr Doctor nu är tid, att konsten din uppgifwa,
Du får ej längre tid att fler resepter skrifwa.
Se att ditt timglas re'n till botten runnit är,
Som wittnar att ditt lif ej längre skonas lär.
Mr Doctor, it is time that you must give up your craft,
and not methodically put away more people.
You at your urine glass stare, as coxswain at compass,
But in contrast you forget your life's hourglass.
|Mister Doctor, now it is time to give up your craft,
You will now longer have time to write more prescriptions.
See that your hourglass already[?] has run to the bottom
Which testifies that your life no longer will be spared.
Aldred Warthin, in the book "The Physician of the Dance of Death", informs us that »The same woodcuts used in the Danish edition are repeated, reduced in size, and reversed«. This statement is true for many of the scenes including the physician, which was the only character that Wartin was interested in, but not for all. See for instance the fencing master (pictures to the left and right).
Det mänskliga lifwets obeständighet was first printed in Stockholm 1777. The last edition was printed in Falun 1838, and this is the edition referenced by Warthin.
The Danish version of Det menneskelige Livs Flugt eller Døde=Dands was published in 1762, 1770 and 1814.
However, the number of issues pales when compared to the many issues of the Swedish copy. Here is an attempt to list the many editions:
The first edition was issued in Stockholm in 1777. The woodcuts are copies of the Danish, and ca. 30 of them are reversed. This has an odd consequence for the Harlequin: The Danish Harlequin sports the initials "HW" on his cravat, but in the reversed image it says "WH". HW stands for Hanswurst, a coarse-comic figure of German-speaking impromptu comedy. Only a Swede knows who "WH" is supposed to be.
The copies as a rule follow the Danish originals slavishly, but with a few exceptions: Death takes the mitre from the Danish bishop, but the crosier from the Swedish, the watchman's weapon is different, and there is no cat to accompany the Turk.
The sequence is different. Surprisingly the pope arrives rather late in the dance, following the vicar. The Danish lawyer has become a judge and the night watchman has become a fire guard. A single original scene has been added: Slösaren, i.e. the spendthrift.
In 1784 the woodcuts were published in Gefle/Gävle 158 kilometers northwest of Stockholm, but the two skulls on the front page were replaced by a copy. All of the following editions, excepting the 1818-edition, to which we shall return, were issued in Falun 83 kilometers west of Gävle.
The last edition was in 1838, with almost the same title: »Det menskliga lifwets obeständighet. eller Samtal emellan döden och menniskor af allehanda stånd. Öfwersatt ifrån danska språket«.
Over the course of the many years the woodblocks had become quite worn, and many of them clearly show vertical or horizontal cracks. In the case of the king, the right third seems to have been replaced by a new chunk of wood (picture to the right).
The woodblock with the beggar must have perished since it had been replaced by a copy.
One particular edition is conspicuously different from all the others: While all other editions between 1791 and 1838 are from Falun, northwest of Stockholm, the 1818-edition is from Kalmar, south of Stockholm (picture to the right).
If one wonders why anybody would transport the woodcuts 440 kilometers south from Falun to Kalmar (and 440 kilometers back again), the answer is, that this is not what happened. The woodcuts from Kalmar are copies of the other editions (which in turn were copies of the Danish editions).
The copies are reversed. This is also true for the two skulls on the front page (picture to the right), which are reversed of e.g. the 1807-edition, which in turn was different from the very first edition from the 1807-edition.
About 30 of the Stockholmian woodcuts were reversed, so when the publisher in Kalmar produced reversed copies of the Stockholmian, they became non-inverted when compared to the Danish originals. Compare with the Danish cook and the Danish children.