Des dodes dantz was printed in Lübeck in 1489. The book is loosely based on the painting in St. Mary's Church.
Death to the pope
Nurse with child
Des dodes dantz has four different pictures of Death that are printed several times. In order to illustrate the 28 humans, 26 wooden plates are used since the picture of the citizen is the same as that of the church ward and the picture of the youth is the same as that of the journeyman.
All the humans appear on the left pages - looking to right - and Death answers them on the right pages - looking to the left - so their eyes meet at the middle. The following example shows the empress and Death with a spade.
The title page of Des dodes dantz starts with the compelling words: "O mynsche dencke wor du bist her ghekomen vnde wattu nu byst. unde wat du schalt werden in korter vryst. " (Oh human, consider from where you come and what you are now and what you will become in short time), which is actually a quote from the epilogue. Then follows the index.
Des dodes dantz consists of 1686 lines, 4 times as many as the original in St. Mary's church, making it the longest dance of death in existence. The text is, of course, inspired by the painting in Marienkirche, but it also quotes freely from the devotional books of the period, like "Zwiegespräch zwischen Leben und Tod" and "Boek der profecien, epistelen vnde des hylgen ewangelij auer dat gantze yar mit velen glosen".
The extra lines are used to broaden the range of participants - in order to make the dance a mirror of society. Not only is the number of dancers increased by 4, but some of the others are changed to make them more generic and thus increase reader identification. For instance the usurer in St. Mary's is replaced by the citizen(1) (really, how many usurers are there in one city?).
Likewise the Carthusian is replaced by the more generic monk, and Death says "you may be a..." followed by a long list of holy orders: "en cartuser efte ein benedictiner, Ein bernardusmonnik efte ein augustiner, Van dem orden Franciscus, Dominicus efte Anscharius, Ut sunte Martens klôster, Brixius efte van sunte Hilarius...". The craftsman is treated to a list of 98 trades that sounds like a libretto from Gilbert and Sullivan, and Death tells the maiden the names of 70 girls that must join the dance.
Des dodes dantz was reprinted in 1496. To complicate matters, this new edition was called "Dodendantz". In the rest of this site, the name "Dodendantz" refers to the book from 1520.
In the 1489-edition the text comes in one long stream that wraps around. There is very little punctuation, but every line starts with a capital letter, which is emphasized with red ink. In the 1496-edition the publisher has chosen to write each linie separately (except at the top of the page, where the woodcuts take up too much space).
The text was re-published in 1876 by Baethcke,
who drastically modernized the spelling.
As a typical example, take the very last line:
"Ghedichtet vnde ghesath in der keyserliken stad lubeck na der bord ihesu cristi ..." (original)
"Gedichtet unde gesat in der keiserliken stat Lubek na der bort Jesu Cristi ..." (Baethcke)
In the same way he called his book Des dodes danz - i.e. without the "t".
Des dodes dantz is often referred to as speigel des dodes (mirror of death) because of a quote from the work:
Only chapter 1 and the physician have been translated. This is partly due to the size of the text and my lack of skills, but mainly it's because the purpose of this site is to present the primary sources. The dance of death is a poem and a word-by-word translation would be utterly boring.
Des dodes dantz - splendid scans of a 1489 exemplar from Germanisches Nationalmuseum. This exemplar lacks the leaf with "Death to the emperor" and "the empress"; for some reason they haven't scanned the merchant.
Des dodes danz nach den lübecker drucken von 1489 und 1496, Tübingen 1876, herausgegeben von Hermann Baethcke.
Reprint of the text (as part of his modernization, Baethcke has dropped a "t" in the title). The book doesn't contain any pictures, but features the entire text, plenty of footnotes and a glossary (Low German - High German). The book can be downloaded from The Internet Archive. The text can be read here.
Totentänze ....Die Deutschsprachigen Spätmittelalterlichen Totentänze unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Inkunabel, Des dodes dantz, Lübeck 1489 by Brigitte Schulte.
Schulte compares the structure of 14 dances of death (13 of which are German). The book is sometimes insufferably boring, but the last part of the book is a thorough and sound comparison of the text in Lübeck/Tallinn with Des dodes dantz and Dodendantz.
Max Friedländer made a facsimile reprint in 1910
All the woodcuts from Mohnkopf's publications can be found in Albert Schramm's Der Bilderschmuck der Frühdrucke, volume 12.